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Withdrawal can cause mild to clinically significant distress or impairment in daily functioning.
The frequency at which this occurs is self reported at 11%, but in lab tests only half of the people who report withdrawal actually experience it, casting doubt on many claims of dependence.
Caffeine dependence can involve withdrawal symptoms such as fatigue, headache, irritability, depressed mood, reduced contentedness, inability to concentrate, sleepiness or drowsiness, stomach pain, and joint pain.
The APA, which published the DSM-5, acknowledged that there was sufficient evidence in order to create a diagnostic model of caffeine dependence for the DSM-5, but they noted that the clinical significance of this disorder is unclear.
There is some evidence that the hormonal changes during pregnancy slow the metabolic clearance of caffeine from the system, causing a given dose to have longer-lasting effects (as long as 15 hours in the third trimester).
A cup of coffee contains 80–175 mg of caffeine, depending on what "bean" (seed) is used and how it is prepared (e.g., drip, percolation, or espresso).
Thus it requires roughly 50–100 ordinary cups of coffee to reach a lethal dose.
Caffeine can produce a mild form of drug dependence – associated with withdrawal symptoms such as sleepiness, headache, and irritability – when an individual stops using caffeine after repeated daily intake.
Tolerance to the autonomic effects of increased blood pressure and heart rate, and increased urine output, develops with chronic use (i.e., these symptoms become less pronounced or do not occur following consistent use).